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How the current battery technology is a big bottleneck for the electric vehicle industry.

With the changing span of time, the motor vehicle industry has grown a lot and every other day the developers and engineers come-up with the new and more creative ideas that generate curiosity among the people. Such an example can also be seen in the case of the current battery technology which has now become a big bottleneck for the emerging electric vehicle industry. It all started in the month of June 2018, when the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) announced that it will transfer its space-grade lithium-ion technology at a marginal cost of Rs. 1 crore on a non-exclusive basis use in automobiles to help them to shift towards electric mobility which is now resulting in 130 new companies moving forward and showing interest in procuring ISRO’s lithium-ion cell technology. 

However, the ongoing and significant improvements in battery technology will paw the way for an installed EV base of 100 million by 2028 (as per the ABI research). To eliminate some of the issues, the electric vehicle's battery (EVB) will need to be safer, cheaper, faster charging and have a high energy density for greater range. To add further different options should be available having different ranges which will help the customer to choose according to their budget and preference. While Lithium-ion batteries are the current standard for EV’s, yet they have certain limitations like – relatively short life cycles and they have a history of overheating. If we take the reference of the recent research around, lithium-based chemistries have revolved around by using different lithium-based batteries to provide better fire resistance, quicker charges and longer lifespan. 

However, while the lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery will continue to progress, it will be at a solid-state. Numerous investments from OEM’s such as Volkswagen, BMW Group and Daimler have been in a solid-state technology. If we talk about India in this context, the Indian government has set-up several ambitious targets to accelerate the adaptation of electric vehicles (EV’s) and by 2023; it wants all the three-wheelers to run on batteries and by 2025, the rule will be applicable to most of the two-wheelers as well. Incentives are also being offered to the car manufacturing units and component manufacturing companies (which manufactures lithium-ion batteries and electric motors). 

On the other hand, challenges remain the same as the problem in the country lies when someone can come up with great idea but there is a possibility of it getting lost in between the transition way before it reaches to the right person. Therefore, the most important factor in the whole context is the need for strong policymaking. When we will have a glance in the history of electric cars, the first person to strike in the mind is Wan Gang. Wan’s vision to make China an EV powerhouse revolutionized the global car industry and due to Wan’s efforts and the strong government policies, China is now in the race with the west. The policy included both carrots in the form of direct and indirect tax, subsidies and sticks in the form of limits in large cities on how many petrol or diesel cars could receive licenses. 

Today, in China if someone wants to own an EU, they can get it easily. The process is quite convenient and hassle-free. However, to buy a patrol car it could take up to eight years. This has made it the only middle-level income nation which is in the top of the list of the countries pushing for the electrification of transport. By keeping the points in mind and taking references from the leading countries like China and the USA, several policies shall be made, focus on financing shall also be considered and the changing infrastructure needs more push to boost-up the start-up ecosystem. 

Besides that, there are still several factors that should be taken into consideration like – Battery supply situations, dust and waterlogging problems (which the countries like China and USA does not faces but it is an issue in India), Challenge of Charging infrastructure (as the is no other way to have charging network infrastructure than to build one’s own), skilled labour (as there is a huge difference between understanding the product and how things actually happen. So, there is a need of people who have the knowledge of both electrical and mechanical aspects which are relatively hard to find) and care for the climate is also a very important aspect.

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